The original pdf file can be seen at http://www.defra.gov.uk/footandmouth/pdf/factsheet3.pdf
Fact Sheet 3
What will happen when foot and mouth disease (FMD) is suspected or confirmed
What will happen on my farm if
disease is suspected there?
An Animal Health Veterinary Inspector will visit your
animals as soon as possible and serve a Restriction Notice -
Form EXD1 (FMD) - on the premises. These restrictions will
remain in place until the Inspector has ruled out disease
and advises you that they have been lifted.
The Restriction Notice explains exactly what you must do
but in summary you will be asked to:
*Put up warning signs at the entrance to your premises -
Foot and Mouth Disease - Keep Out.
*Keep records of animals on your premises.
*Prevent animals from straying from the area or building
where the Veterinary Inspector asks you to keep them.
*Prevent the movement of any animals onto or off
*Provide a method of disinfection at the entrances and
exits to the places where the animals are kept to help
stop disease spreading.
*Prevent any vehicle, person, equipment or material, e.g.
feed, slurry etc to move off the farm. If any movements
are essential, contact the local office dealing with the
investigation for advice (contact details will be on the
EXD1 (FMD) Restriction Notice).
*Control rodents on the premises.
Read the conditions of the notice carefully and ask the
Veterinary Inspector if you have any questions.
*The Veterinary Inspector will look at your animals and ask
questions about how long they have been ill, if any animals
have been moved on or off recently, etc. Try to gather this
information while you are waiting for the vet to arrive.
*After they have examined your animals, the vet will make
a telephone report to Defra HQ to discuss the case with
*If disease cannot be ruled out, tissue and blood samples
will be collected from the affected animals including
animals that may have died recently. Blood may be taken
from others on the premises.
*The samples are sent to the Veterinary Laboratories
Agency in Surrey by the quickest means possible.
*However, if the clinical signs are obviously due to
FMD and the disease is already known to be present
in the country, the disease may be confirmed at this
stage by Defra HQ in consultation with the
Veterinary Inspector on your farm.
Until the laboratory results are known, you will remain under
the EXD1 (FMD) Restriction Notice and it is essential you comply
with the restrictions to minimise the risk of disease spreading.
What will happen around my premises
while the disease is investigated?
On suspicion of disease the Secretary of State (or the
Scottish Ministers or the Welsh Assembly in Scotland and
Wales respectively) will make a Declaration establishing a
Temporary Control Zone (TCZ) around your premises. This
will be of a size considered necessary to prevent the spread
of the disease.
Within the TCZ movements of animals to and from premises
(including into or out of the zone) are not allowed. Farmers
will be given advice on biosecurity and how to check their
stocks regularly for signs of disease.
A Supplementary Movement Control Zone may also be
established, restricting the movement of animals in a
These are temporary measures and the TCZ would not be
expected to last more than a few days by which time the
disease situation will be clearer.
What happens when disease is
On the premises where disease is confirmed the following
will happen as quickly as possible:
*A Veterinary Inspector will issue a Restriction Notice
confirming disease (EXD2 (FMD)) and the restrictions on
the premises will remain in force. The premises where
the disease is confirmed is now known as an Infected
*Culling - All susceptible animals will be humanely culled.
Compensation will be paid for any animal slaughtered as
prescribed by Schedule 3 of the Animal Health Act 1981
as determined by the valuer at the time of culling.
*Valuation - all animals will be valued by a Defra
*Disposal - carcasses will be disposed either by rendering
or incineration though other options are available,
however on farm burial or burning will not be used in
*Preliminary Disinfection - this is a disinfectant spray to
all parts of the premises where animals have been to
damp down virus to minimise the risk of spread of
*Veterinary investigation - even once the infected animals
have been culled, inquiries must continue to establish
where the disease came from and where it may have
Actions around the Infected Premises
Another Declaration will be made, to establish a restricted
area comprising a Protection Zone (PZ) which extends for at
least 3 km around the Infected Premises (IP) and a
Surveillance Zone (SZ) which extends for at least 10 km
around the IP.
Within the PZ all premises containing livestock will be
inspected by veterinary inspectors and will be subject to
restrictions. This reduces the chance of potentially infected
material leaving the premises until the disease status can
Within the SZ all premises containing livestock will be
subject to movement restrictions.
As a result of the veterinary investigation, other premises
may be identified where the disease may have come from
(source) or gone to (spread). These premises could be many
miles from the IP. They will be placed under another
Restriction Notice EXD 8(FMD).
*If the level of exposure is not deemed high enough to
warrant culling, the animals will remain under restriction
using Form EXD8(FMD). They will be regularly inspected
for signs of disease.
*If, following a Veterinary Inspection, it is considered very
likely that animals have been exposed to disease and will
probably develop clinical signs, they will be valued and
culled as quickly as possible. These premises are known
as Dangerous Contacts (DC) and an EXD2(FMD)
Restriction Notice will be served on them.
On all premises where animals are culled to control disease,
cleansing and disinfection (C & D) must take place before
new animals can be brought in to restock. The Animal
Health Divisional Office will supervise the process to ensure
that it has been undertaken to a satisfactory standard.
C & D usually involves cleaning areas and equipment with
approved disinfectants but can also include the premises (or
parts of the premises) remaining under restrictions for a
long period, possibly up to 12 months to allow natural virus
decay. This may be an option if you do not wish to
undertake usual C & D.
FMD Emergency vaccination would be considered from the
start of an outbreak of FMD if a veterinary risk assessment
showed that measures additional to the basic slaughter
policy were required to control the disease.
Lifting of Restrictions
EXD2(FMD) restrictions remain in place until either:
*The premises have been restocked and the animals show
no signs of disease on clinical inspections and from lab
test on samples. Restocking can only take place after a
minimum interval after secondary C&D has been
completed (the inspector will advise you how long this
needs to be)or
*A longer period of time has elapsed after which
restrictions are revoked and you may stock without
licensing, inspections and sampling.
EXD8(FMD) restrictions remain in place until either:
*A minimum period of time has elapsed since they were
exposed to possible infectionor
*If the animals present have not shown any signs of
disease and any samples taken are all negative.
Premises in Protection and Surveillance Zones
*The restrictions on these premises cannot be lifted until
there is confidence that no disease is present, either on
the premises or elsewhere within the Zones.
*Regular inspections will take place from the time the
disease is suspected.
*The PZ cannot be merged with the surveillance zone
until at least 15 days after preliminary cleansing and
disinfection of the IP and then only if no disease is
suspected or confirmed and the results of any samples
taken are all negative.
*The SZ must remain in force for at least another 15 days
although again it will remain in force
if further disease is
suspected or confirmed in the area.
This document is also available on the Defra, Welsh
Assembly Government and Scottish Executive websites.
For telephone and email enquiries for information on
any aspect of Defra, Welsh Assembly Government or
Scottish Executive work, the following helplines can
Defra 08459 33 55 77. (local call rate number within
Welsh Assembly Government 02920 825 572
Scottish Executive 08459 33 55 77
From outside the UK the telephone number is:
There is also a minicom/textphone number for the
deaf and hard of hearing: 0845 300 1998.
The Helpline email address is:
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