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When an FMD outbreak or FMDV infection occurs in an FMD free country
or zone where vaccination is not practised, one of the following
waiting periods is required to regain the status of FMD free country
or zone where vaccination is not practised:

"3 months after the last case where a stamping-out policy and
serological surveillance are applied in accordance with Articles
8.5.42. to 8.5.48.; or

"3 months after the slaughter of all vaccinated animals where a
stamping-out policy, emergency vaccination, and serological
surveillance are applied in accordance with Articles 8.5.42. to 8.5.48.; or

"6 months after the last case or the last vaccination (according to
the event that occurs the latest), where a stamping-out policy,
emergency vaccination not followed by the slaughtering of all
vaccinated animals, and serological surveillance are applied in
accordance with Articles 8.5.42. to 8.5.48., provided that a
serological survey based on the detection of antibodies to
nonstructural proteins of FMDV demonstrates the absence of infection
in the remaining vaccinated population.

"Where a stamping-out policy is not practised, the above waiting
periods do not apply, and Article 8.5.2. or 8.5.4. applies [see at
<http://oie.int/eng/normes/mcode/en_chapitre_1.8.5.htm>].

"When an FMD outbreak or FMDV infection occurs in an FMD free country
or zone where vaccination is practised, one of the following waiting
periods is required to regain the status of FMD free country or zone
where vaccination is practised:

"6 months after the last case where a stamping-out policy, emergency
vaccination, and serological surveillance in accordance with Articles
8.5.42. to 8.5.48. are applied, provided that the serological
surveillance based on the detection of antibodies to nonstructural
proteins of FMDV demonstrates the absence of virus circulation; or

"18 months after the last case where a stamping-out policy is not
applied, but emergency vaccination and serological surveillance in
accordance with Articles 8.5.42. to 8.5.48. are applied, provided
that the serological surveillance based on the detection of
antibodies to nonstructural proteins of FMDV demonstrates the absence
of virus circulation."

A decision of an FMD-free country to apply emergency FMD vaccination
(in order to control an outbreak), deserves to be seen also in light
of that country's international trade figures. In other words, the
effect upon export (and the possible delay of its renewal) should be
weighted vis-a-vis potential losses to the animal breeders/owners and
to the local market, on top of other issues such as animal welfare
and collateral damage to the countryside, agri-business, tourism etc.

Korea is predominantly an importer, not exporter, of animals (cattle
and pigs) and/or their products. According to the statistical data
provided by FAOSTAT (database of the Food and Agriculture
Organisation of the UN), the imports/exports of the Republic of Korea
during 2008 (=most recent available data) were the following:
Live cattle (heads): import - 208; export - 0.
Live pigs (heads): import - 1451; export - 629.
Cattle meat (including boneless meat and veal; in metric tons):
import - 210 644 (value USD 959 993 000). Export - 4 tons.
Pork (in metric tons): import - 322 851 (value USD 821 560 000);
export - 8249 (value USD 14 487 000).
Countries (OIE Members) which are officially recognised by the OIE as
free of FMD, maintain a privileged status in relation to the
certification and veterinary requirements when exporting animals
(relevant species) and animal products, worldwide. Explanation of the
official procedures for members wishing to apply for recognition of
animal disease status is available at
<
http://www.oie.int/eng/Status/en_procedures.htm>.

There are 2 categories of recognised Members, in relation to FMD:
1. FMD free where vaccination is not practised
2. FMD free where vaccination is practised

The updated list of FMD free countries, of both categories, is
available at <
http://www.oie.int/eng/Status/FMD/en_fmd_free.htm>. The
Republic of Korea was suspended of its status as "FMD free Member
without vaccination" on 29 Nov 2010, following the notification of
FMD in Andong city. The timetable ("waiting periods") for the
recovery of FMD-free status is addressed in Article 8.5.9. of OIE's
Terrestrial Animal Health Code. The text of the said article is as follows:

"Article 8.5.9. Recovery of free status
- ----------------------------------------
When an FMD outbreak or FMDV infection occurs in an FMD free country
or zone where vaccination is not practised, one of the following
waiting periods is required to regain the status of FMD free country
or zone where vaccination is not practised:

"3 months after the last case where a stamping-out policy and
serological surveillance are applied in accordance with Articles
8.5.42. to 8.5.48.; or

"3 months after the slaughter of all vaccinated animals where a
stamping-out policy, emergency vaccination, and serological
surveillance are applied in accordance with Articles 8.5.42. to 8.5.48.; or

"6 months after the last case or the last vaccination (according to
the event that occurs the latest), where a stamping-out policy,
emergency vaccination not followed by the slaughtering of all
vaccinated animals, and serological surveillance are applied in
accordance with Articles 8.5.42. to 8.5.48., provided that a
serological survey based on the detection of antibodies to
nonstructural proteins of FMDV demonstrates the absence of infection
in the remaining vaccinated population.

"Where a stamping-out policy is not practised, the above waiting
periods do not apply, and Article 8.5.2. or 8.5.4. applies [see at
<
http://oie.int/eng/normes/mcode/en_chapitre_1.8.5.htm>].

"When an FMD outbreak or FMDV infection occurs in an FMD free country
or zone where vaccination is practised, one of the following waiting
periods is required to regain the status of FMD free country or zone
where vaccination is practised:

"6 months after the last case where a stamping-out policy, emergency
vaccination, and serological surveillance in accordance with Articles
8.5.42. to 8.5.48. are applied, provided that the serological
surveillance based on the detection of antibodies to nonstructural
proteins of FMDV demonstrates the absence of virus circulation; or

"18 months after the last case where a stamping-out policy is not
applied, but emergency vaccination and serological surveillance in
accordance with Articles 8.5.42. to 8.5.48. are applied, provided
that the serological surveillance based on the detection of
antibodies to nonstructural proteins of FMDV demonstrates the absence
of virus circulation."

A decision of an FMD-free country to apply emergency FMD vaccination
(in order to control an outbreak), deserves to be seen also in light
of that country's international trade figures. In other words, the
effect upon export (and the possible delay of its renewal) should be
weighted vis-a-vis potential losses to the animal breeders/owners and
to the local market, on top of other issues such as animal welfare
and collateral damage to the countryside, agri-business, tourism etc.

Korea is predominantly an importer, not exporter, of animals (cattle
and pigs) and/or their products. According to the statistical data
provided by FAOSTAT (database of the Food and Agriculture
Organisation of the UN), the imports/exports of the Republic of Korea
during 2008 (=most recent available data) were the following:
Live cattle (heads): import - 208; export - 0.
Live pigs (heads): import - 1451; export - 629.
Cattle meat (including boneless meat and veal; in metric tons):
import - 210 644 (value USD 959 993 000). Export - 4 tons.
Pork (in metric tons): import - 322 851 (value USD 821 560 000);
export - 8249 (value USD 14 487 000).

The decision of the authorities to resort, eventually, to emergency
vaccination may have been taken while considering, inter alia, the
export statistics. It will be interesting to obtain more details on
the envisaged vaccination, its scope (quantitatively and
geographically), type(s) and age of animals to be vaccinated, and the
vaccine to be applied. - Mod.AS]