CHAPTER  2.1.1.

FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE

Article 2.1.1.1.

For the purposes of this Code, the incubation period for foot and mouth disease (FMD) shall be 14 days.

For the purposes of this Chapter, ruminants include animals of the family of Camelidae.

For the purpose of international trade, this chapter deals not only with the occurrence of clinical signs caused by FMD virus (FMDV), but also with the presence of infection with FMDV in the absence of clinical signs.

The following defines the occurrence of FMDV infection:

1)    FMDV has been isolated and identified as such from an animal or a product derived from that animal, or

2)    viral antigen or viral RNA specific to one or more of the serotypes of FMDV has been identified in samples from one or more animals showing clinical signs consistent with FMD, or epidemiologically linked to a confirmed or suspected outbreak of FMD, or giving cause for suspicion of previous association or contact with FMDV, or

3)    antibodies to structural or nonstructural proteins of FMDV that are not a consequence of vaccination, have been identified in one or more animals with either epidemiological links to a confirmed or suspected outbreak of FMD, or showing clinical signs consistent with recent infection with FMDV.

Standards for diagnostic tests and vaccines are described in the Manual.

Article 2.1.1.2.

FMD free country where vaccination is not practised

To qualify for inclusion in the existing list of FMD free countries where vaccination is not practised, a country should:

1)    have a record of regular and prompt animal disease reporting;

2)    send a declaration to the OIE stating that:

a)     there has been no outbreak of FMD during the past 12 months;

b)    no evidence of FMDV infection has been found during the past 12 months;

c)     no vaccination against FMD has been carried out during the past 12 months,

and supply documented evidence that an effective system of surveillance for both FMD and FMDV infection is in operation and that regulatory measures for the prevention and control of FMD have been implemented;

3)    not have imported since the cessation of vaccination any animals vaccinated against FMD.

The country will be included in the list only after the submitted evidence has been accepted by the OIE.


Article 2.1.1.3.

FMD free country where vaccination is practised

To qualify for inclusion in the list of FMD free countries where vaccination is practised, a country should:

1)    have a record of regular and prompt animal disease reporting;

2)    send a declaration to the OIE that there has been no outbreak of FMD for the past 2 years and no evidence of FMDV infection for the past 12 months, with documented evidence that:

a)     an effective system of surveillance for FMD is in operation, and that regulatory measures for the prevention and control of FMD have been implemented;

b)          routine vaccination is carried out for the purpose of the prevention of FMD;

c)     the vaccine used complies with the standards described in the Manual.

The country will be included in the list only after the submitted evidence has been accepted by the OIE.

If an FMD free country where vaccination is practised wishes to change its status to FMD free country where vaccination is not practised, the country should wait for 12 months after vaccination has ceased and provide evidence showing that FMDV infection has not occurred during that period.

Article 2.1.1.4.

FMD free zone where vaccination is not practised

An FMD free zone where vaccination is not practised can be established in either an FMD free country where vaccination is practised or in a country of which parts are still infected. The FMD free zone must be separated from the rest of the country and, if relevant, from neighbouring infected countries by a surveillance zone, or physical or geographical barriers, and animal health measures that effectively prevent the entry of the virus must be implemented. A country in which an FMD free zone where vaccination is not practised is to be established should:

1)    have a record of regular and prompt animal disease reporting;

2)      send a declaration to the OIE stating that it wishes to establish an FMD free zone where vaccination is not practised and that:

a)     there has been no outbreak of FMD during the past 12 months;

b)    no evidence of FMDV infection has been found during the past 12 months;

c)     no vaccination against FMD has been carried out during the past 12 months;

d)    no vaccinated animal has been introduced into the zone since the cessation of vaccination, except in accordance with Article 2.1.1.8.;

3)    supply documented evidence that an effective system of surveillance for both FMD and FMDV infection is in operation in the FMD free zone where vaccination is not practised;

4)    describe in detail:

a)          regulatory measures for the prevention and control of both FMD and FMDV infection,

b)    the boundaries of the FMD free zone, and the surveillance zone,

c)     the system for preventing the entry of the virus into the FMDV free zone (in particular if the procedure described in Article 2.1.1.8. is implemented),

and supply documented evidence that these are properly implemented and supervised.

The free zone will be included in the list of FMD free zones where vaccination is not practised only after the submitted evidence has been accepted by the OIE.

Article 2.1.1.5.

FMD free zone where vaccination is practised

An FMD free zone where vaccination is practised can be established in a country with an FMD free zone where vaccination is not practised or in a country of which parts are still infected. Vaccination of zoo animals, animals belonging to rare species or breeds, or animals in research centres as a precaution for conservation purposes is an example of implementation of such a zone. The free zone where vaccination is practised is separated from the rest of the country and, if relevant, from neighbouring infected countries by a buffer zone, or physical or geographical barriers, and animal health measures that effectively prevent the entry of the virus must be implemented. A country in which an FMD free zone where vaccination is practised is to be established should:

1)    have a record of regular and prompt animal disease reporting;

2)    send a declaration to the OIE that it wishes to establish an FMD free zone where vaccination is practised, where there has been no outbreak of FMD for the past 2 years;

3)      supply documented evidence that the vaccine used complies with the standards described in the Manual;

4)    describe in detail:

a)          regulatory measures for the prevention and control of both FMD and FMDV infection,

b)    the boundaries of the FMD free zone where vaccination is practised and the buffer zone if applicable,

c)     the system for preventing the entry of the virus into the FMD free zone (in particular if the procedure described in Article 2.1.1.8. is implemented),

and supply evidence that these are properly implemented and supervised;

5)    supply documented evidence that it has a system of intensive and frequent surveillance for FMD in the FMD free zone where vaccination is practised.

The free zone will be included in the list of FMD free zones where vaccination is practised only after the submitted evidence has been accepted by the OIE.

If a country that has an FMD free zone where vaccination is practised wishes to change the status of the zone to FMD free zone where vaccination is not practised, the country should wait for 12 months after vaccination has ceased and provide evidence showing that FMDV infection has not occurred in the said zone during that period.

Article 2.1.1.6.

FMD infected country or zone

An FMD infected country is a country that does not fulfil the requirements to qualify as either an FMD free country where vaccination is not practised or an FMD free country where vaccination is practised.

An FMD infected zone is a zone that does not fulfil the requirements to qualify as either an FMD free zone where vaccination is not practised or an FMD free zone where vaccination is practised.


Article 2.1.1.7.

Recovery of free status

1)    When an FMD outbreak or FMDV infection occurs in an FMD free country or zone where vaccination is not practised, one of the following waiting periods is required to regain the status of FMD free country or zone where vaccination is not practised:

a)          3 months after the last case where a stamping-out policy and serological surveillance are applied, or

b)          3 months after the slaughter of the last vaccinated animal where a stamping-out policy, emergency vaccination and serological surveillance are applied, or

c)          6 months after the last case or the last vaccination (according to the event that occurs the latest), where a stamping-out policy, emergency vaccination not followed by the slaughtering of all vaccinated animals, and serological surveillance are applied, provided that a serological survey based on the detection of antibodies to nonstructural proteins of FMDV demonstrates the absence of infection in the remaining vaccinated population.

2)    When an FMD outbreak or FMDV infection occurs in an FMD free country or zone where vaccination is practised, one of the following waiting periods is required to regain the status of FMD free country or zone where vaccination is practised:

a)          6 months after the last case where a stamping-out policy, serological surveillance and emergency vaccination are applied, provided that a serological survey based on the detection of antibodies to nonstructural proteins of FMDV demonstrates the absence of infection, or

b)    12 months after the last case where a stamping-out policy  is applied,

provided that effective surveillance has been carried out.

The application to regain the free status according to one of the procedures described above should be submitted to the OIE by the country in question within 2 years of the occurrence of the first FMD outbreak or the first detection of FMDV infection, otherwise the provisions of either Article 2.1.1.2., or Article 2.1.1.3., or Article 2.1.1.4., or Article 2.1.1.5., as relevant, are applicable to the country.

Article 2.1.1.8.

Transfer of FMD susceptible animals from an infected zone to a free zone within a country

Live animals from FMD susceptible species can only leave the infected zone if moved by mechanical transport to the nearest designated abattoir located in the buffer zone or the surveillance zone for immediate slaughter. In the absence of an abattoir in the buffer zone or the surveillance zone, live FMD susceptible animals can be transported to the nearest abattoir in a free zone for immediate slaughter only under the following conditions:

1)    no animal in the establishment of origin has shown clinical signs of FMD for at least 30 days prior to movement;

2)    the animals were kept in the establishment of origin for at least 3 months prior to movement;

3)    FMD has not occurred within a 10-kilometre radius of the establishment of origin for at least 3 months prior to movement;

4)    the animals must be transported under the supervision of the Veterinary Authority in a vehicle, which was cleansed and disinfected before loading, directly from the establishment of origin to the abattoir without coming into contact with other susceptible animals;

5)    such an abattoir is not export approved;

6)    all products obtained from the animals must be considered infected and treated in such a way as to destroy any residual virus; in particular, meat must be processed in conformity with one of the procedures referred to in Article 3.6.2.1.;

7)    vehicles and the abattoir must be subjected to thorough cleansing and disinfection immediately after use.

Animals moved into a free zone for other purposes must be taken to a quarantine station under the supervision of the Veterinary Authority. Freedom of infection of these animals must be established by appropriate tests.

Article 2.1.1.9.

Veterinary Administrations of countries shall consider whether there is a risk with regard to FMDV infection in accepting importation or transit through their territory, from other countries, of the following commodities:

1)    domestic and wild ruminants and pigs;

2)    semen of ruminants and pigs;

3)     embryos/ova of ruminants and pigs;

4)    fresh meat of domestic and wild ruminants and pigs;

5)    meat products of domestic and wild ruminants and pigs which have not been processed to ensure the destruction of the FMD virus in conformity with one of the procedures referred to in Article 3.6.2.1.;

6)    products of animal origin intended for human consumption, for use in animal feeding or for agricultural or industrial use;

7)    products of animal origin intended for pharmaceutical or surgical use;

8)    non-sterile biological products.

Other commodities should be considered as not having the potential to spread FMD when they are the subject of international trade.

Article 2.1.1.10.

When importing from FMD free countries or zones where vaccination is not practised, Veterinary Administrations should require:

for FMD susceptible animals

the presentation of an international veterinary certificate attesting that the animals:

1)    showed no clinical sign of FMD on the day of shipment;

2)    were kept in an FMD free country or zone where vaccination is not practised since birth or for at least the past 3 months.


Article 2.1.1.11.

When importing from FMD free countries or zones where vaccination is practised, Veterinary Administrations should require:

for domestic ruminants and pigs

the presentation of an international veterinary certificate attesting that the animals:

1)    showed no clinical sign of FMD on the day of shipment;

2)    were kept in an FMD free country since birth or for at least the past 3 months; and

3)    have not been vaccinated and were subjected, with negative results, to tests for antibodies against FMD virus, when destined to an FMD free country or zone where vaccination is not practised.

FMD free countries or zones where vaccination is not practised may require additional guarantees.

Article 2.1.1.12.

When importing from FMD infected countries or zones, Veterinary Administrations should require:

for domestic ruminants and pigs

the presentation of an international veterinary certificate attesting that the animals:

1)    showed no clinical sign of FMD on the day of shipment;

2)    were kept in the establishment of origin since birth or

a)     for the past 30 days, if a stamping-out policy is in force in the exporting country, or

b)    for the past 3 months, if a stamping-out policy is not in force in the exporting country,

and that FMD has not occurred within a 10-kilometre radius of the establishment of origin for the relevant period as defined in points a) and b) above; and

3)    were isolated for the 30 days prior to quarantine in an establishment, were subjected to diagnostic tests (probang and serology) for evidence of FMDV infection with negative results at the end of that period, and that FMD did not occur within a 10-kilometre radius of the establishment during that period; or

4)    were kept in a quarantine station for the 30 days prior to shipment, were subjected to diagnostic tests (probang and serology) for evidence of FMDV infection with negative results at the end of that period, and that FMD did not occur within a 10-kilometre radius of the quarantine station during that period;

5)    were not exposed to any source of infection during their transportation from the quarantine station to the place of shipment.

Article 2.1.1.13.

When importing from FMD free countries or zones where vaccination is not practised, Veterinary Administrations should require:

for fresh semen of domestic ruminants and pigs

the presentation of an international veterinary certificate attesting that:

1)    the donor animals:

a)          showed no clinical sign of FMD on the day of collection of the semen;

b)    were kept in an FMD free country or zone where vaccination is not practised for at least 3 months prior to collection;

2)    the semen was collected, processed and stored in conformity with the provisions of either Appendix 3.2.1. or Appendix 3.2.3.

Article 2.1.1.14.

When importing from FMD free countries or zones where vaccination is not practised, Veterinary Administrations should require:

for frozen semen of domestic ruminants and pigs

the presentation of an international veterinary certificate attesting that:

1)    the donor animals:

a)          showed no clinical sign of FMD on the day of collection of the semen and for the following 30 days;

b)    were kept in an FMD free country or zone where vaccination is not practised for at least 3 months prior to collection;

2)    the semen was collected, processed and stored in conformity with the provisions of either Appendix 3.2.1. or Appendix 3.2.3.

Article 2.1.1.15.

When importing from FMD free countries or zones where vaccination is practised, Veterinary Administrations should require:

for semen of domestic ruminants and pigs

the presentation of an international veterinary certificate attesting that:

1)    the donor animals:

a)          showed no clinical sign of FMD on the day of collection of the semen and for the following 30 days;

b)    were kept in a country or zone free from FMD for at least 3 months prior to collection;

c)     if destined to an FMD free country or zone where vaccination is not practised:

i)   have not been vaccinated and were subjected, with negative results, to tests for antibodies against FMD virus; or

ii)   had been vaccinated at least twice, with the last vaccination not more than 12  and not less than 1 month prior to collection;

2)    no other animal present in the artificial insemination centre has been vaccinated within the month prior to collection;

3)    the semen:

a)     was collected, processed and stored in conformity with the provisions of either Appendix 3.2.1. or Appendix 3.2.3.;

b)    was stored in a country free from FMD for a period of at least one month before export, and during this period no animal on the establishment where the donor animals were kept showed any sign of FMD.

Article 2.1.1.16.

When importing from FMD infected countries or zones, Veterinary Administrations should require:

for semen of domestic ruminants and pigs

the presentation of an international veterinary certificate attesting that:

1)    the donor animals:

a)          showed no clinical sign of FMD on the day of collection of the semen;

b)    were kept in an establishment where no animal had been added in the 30 days before collection, and that FMD has not occurred within 10 kilometres for the 30 days before and after collection;

c)     have not been vaccinated and were subjected, with negative results, to tests for antibodies against FMD virus; or

d)    had been vaccinated at least twice, with the last vaccination not more than 12 and not less than 1 month prior to collection;

2)    no other animal present in the artificial insemination centre has been vaccinated within the month prior to collection;

3)    the semen:

a)     was collected, processed and stored in conformity with the provisions of either Appendix 3.2.1. or Appendix 3.2.3.;

b)    was subjected, with negative results, to a virus isolation test if the donor animal has been vaccinated within the 12 months prior to collection;

c)     was stored for a period of at least one month between collection and export, and during this period no animal on the establishment where the donor animals were kept showed any sign of FMD.

Article 2.1.1.17.

When importing from FMD free countries or zones (where vaccination either is or is not practised), Veterinary Administrations should require:

for in vivo derived embryos of cattle

the presentation of an international veterinary certificate attesting that:

1)    the donor females:

a)          showed no clinical sign of FMD at the time of collection of the embryos;

b)    were kept in an establishment located in a country or zone free from FMD at the time of collection;

2)    the embryos were collected, processed and stored in conformity with the provisions of Appendix 3.3.1. or Appendix 3.3.9., as relevant.

Article 2.1.1.18.

When importing from FMD infected countries or zones, Veterinary Administrations should require:

for in vivo derived embryos of cattle

the presentation of an international veterinary certificate attesting that:

1)    the donor females:

a)          showed no clinical sign of FMD at the time of collection of the embryos;

b)    were kept in an establishment where no animal had been added in the 30 days before collection, and that FMD has not occurred within 10 kilometres for the 30 days before and after collection;

2)    the embryos were collected, processed and stored in conformity with the provisions of Appendix 3.3.1. or Appendix 3.3.9., as relevant.

Article 2.1.1.19.

When importing from FMD free countries or zones where vaccination is not practised, Veterinary Administrations should require:

for in vitro produced embryos of cattle

the presentation of an international veterinary certificate attesting that:

1)    the donor females:

a)          showed no clinical sign of FMD at the time of collection of the embryos;

b)    were kept in a country or zone free from FMD at the time of collection;

2)    fertilisation was achieved with semen meeting the conditions referred to in Articles 2.1.1.13., 2.1.1.14., 2.1.1.15. or 2.1.1.16., as relevant;

3)    the embryos were collected, processed and stored in conformity with the provisions of Appendix 3.3.1. or Appendix 3.3.9., as relevant.

Article 2.1.1.20.

When importing from FMD free countries or zones where vaccination is practised, Veterinary Administrations should require:

for in vitro produced embryos of cattle

the presentation of an international veterinary certificate attesting that:

1)    the donor females:

a)          showed no clinical sign of FMD at the time of collection of the embryos;

b)    were kept in a country or zone free from FMD for at least 3 months prior to collection;

c)     if destined for an FMD free country or zone where vaccination is not practised:

i)   have not been vaccinated and were subjected, with negative results, to tests for antibodies against FMD virus, or

ii)   had been vaccinated at least twice, with the last vaccination not less than 1 month and not more than 12 months prior to collection;

2)    no other animal present in the establishment has been vaccinated within the month prior to collection;

3)    fertilization was achieved with semen meeting the conditions referred to in Articles 2.1.1.13., 2.1.1.14., 2.1.1.15. or 2.1.1.16., as relevant;

4)    the embryos were collected, processed and stored in conformity with the provisions of Appendix 3.3.1. or Appendix 3.3.9., as relevant.

Article 2.1.1.21.

When importing from FMD free countries or zones where vaccination is not practised, Veterinary Administrations should require:

for fresh meat of FMD susceptible animals

the presentation of an international veterinary certificate attesting that the entire consignment of meat comes from animals:

1)    which have been kept in the FMD free country or zone where vaccination is not practised since birth, or that have been imported from an FMD free country or zone where vaccination is not practised;

2)    which have been slaughtered in an approved abattoir and have been subjected to ante-mortem and post-mortem inspections for FMD with favourable results.

 

Article 2.1.1.22.

When importing from FMD free countries or zones where vaccination is practised, Veterinary Administrations should require:

for fresh meat of bovines (excluding feet, head and viscera)

the presentation of an international veterinary certificate attesting that the entire consignment of meat:

1)    comes from animals which:

a)     have remained in the exporting free country or zone for at least 3 months prior to slaughter;

b)    have been slaughtered in an approved abattoir (located in the free zone, when the animals originate from such a zone) and have been subjected to ante-mortem and post-mortem inspections for FMD with favourable results;

2)    comes from deboned carcasses:

a)     from which the major lymphatic glands have been removed;

b)    which, prior to deboning, have been submitted to maturation at a temperature above + 20C for a minimum period of 24 hours following slaughter, and in which the pH value of the meat was below 6.0 when tested in the middle of both the longissimus dorsi.

If the meat is to be imported into a country or a zone of equivalent FMD status or into an infected country in which the virus types used in the vaccines are the same, the maturation and deboning processes may not be required.


Article 2.1.1.23.

When importing from FMD free countries or zones where vaccination is practised, Veterinary Administrations should require:

for fresh meat or meat products of pigs and ruminants other than bovines

the presentation of an international veterinary certificate attesting that the entire consignment of meat comes from animals:

1)    which have been kept in the country or zone since birth, or have been imported from a country or zone free from FMD (where vaccination either is or is not practised);

2)    which have not been vaccinated;

3)    which have been slaughtered in an approved abattoir (located in the free zone, when the animals originate from such a zone) and have been subjected to ante-mortem and post-mortem inspections for FMD with favourable results.

Article 2.1.1.24.

When importing from FMD infected countries or zones, where an official control programme exists, involving compulsory systematic vaccination of cattle, Veterinary Administrations should require:

for fresh meat of bovines (excluding feet, head and viscera)

the presentation of an international veterinary certificate attesting that the entire consignment of meat:

1)    comes from animals which:

a)     have remained in the exporting country for at least 3 months prior to slaughter;

b)    have remained, during this period, in a part of the country where cattle are regularly vaccinated against FMD and where official controls are in operation;

c)     have been vaccinated at least twice with the last vaccination not more than 12 months and not less than 1 month prior to slaughter;

d)    were kept for the past 30 days in an establishment, and that FMD has not occurred within 10 kilometres during that period;

e)     have been transported, in a vehicle which was cleansed and disinfected before the cattle were loaded, directly from the establishment of origin to the approved abattoir without coming into contact with other animals which do not fulfil the required conditions for export;

f)     have been slaughtered in an approved abattoir:

i)   which is officially designated for export;

ii)     in which no FMD has been detected during the period between the last disinfection carried out before slaughter and the shipment for export has been dispatched;

g)     have been subjected to ante-mortem and post-mortem inspections for FMD with favourable results within 24 hours before and after slaughter;

2)    comes from deboned carcasses:

a)     from which the major lymphatic glands have been removed;

b)    which, prior to deboning, have been submitted to maturation at a temperature above + 20C for a minimum period of 24 hours following slaughter and in which the pH value was below 6.0 when tested in the middle of both the longissimus dorsi.

[Note: Article 2.1.1.24. should also apply when meat is to be imported from an infected country into another infected country, in order to prevent the introduction of new strains of FMD virus.]

Article 2.1.1.25.

When importing from FMD infected countries or zones, Veterinary Administrations should require:

for meat products of domestic ruminants and pigs

the presentation of an international veterinary certificate attesting that:

1)    the entire consignment of meat comes from animals which have been slaughtered in an approved abattoir and have been subjected to ante-mortem and post-mortem inspections for FMD with favourable results;

2)    the meat has been processed to ensure the destruction of the FMD virus in conformity with one of the procedures referred to in Article 3.6.2.1.;

3)    the necessary precautions were taken after processing to avoid contact of the meat products with any potential source of FMD virus.

Article 2.1.1.26.

When importing from FMD free countries or zones (where vaccination either is or is not practised), Veterinary Administrations should require:

for milk and milk products intended for human consumption and for products of animal origin (from FMD susceptible animals) intended for use in animal feeding or for agricultural or industrial use

the presentation of an international veterinary certificate attesting that these products come from animals which have been kept in the country or zone since birth, or which have been imported from an FMD free country or zone (where vaccination either is or is not practised).

Article 2.1.1.27.

When importing from FMD infected countries or zones, Veterinary Administrations should require:

for milk and cream

the presentation of an international veterinary certificate attesting that:

1)    these products:

a)          originate from herds or flocks which were not subjected to any restrictions due to FMD at the time of milk collection;

b)    have been processed to ensure the destruction of the FMD virus in conformity with one of the procedures referred to in Article 3.6.2.5. and in Article 3.6.2.6.;

2)    the necessary precautions were taken after processing to avoid contact of the products with any potential source of FMD virus.

Article 2.1.1.28.

When importing from FMD infected countries or zones, Veterinary Administrations should require:

for milk powder and milk products

the presentation of an international veterinary certificate attesting that:

1)    these products are derived from milk complying with the requirements stipulated in Article 2.1.1.27.;

2)    the necessary precautions were taken after processing to avoid contact of the milk powder or the milk products with any potential source of FMD virus.

Article 2.1.1.29.

When importing from FMD infected countries, Veterinary Administrations should require:

for blood and meat-meals (from domestic or wild ruminants and pigs)

the presentation of an international veterinary certificate attesting that the manufacturing method for these products included heating to a minimum internal temperature of 700C for at least 30 minutes.

Article 2.1.1.30.

When importing from FMD infected countries, Veterinary Administrations should require:

for wool, hair, bristles, raw hides and skins (from domestic or wild ruminants and pigs)

the presentation of an international veterinary certificate attesting that:

1)    these products have been processed to ensure the destruction of the FMD virus in conformity with one of the procedures referred to in Articles 3.6.2.2., 3.6.2.3. and 3.6.2.4.;

2)    the necessary precautions were taken after collection or processing to avoid contact of the products with any potential source of FMD virus.

Veterinary Administrations can authorise, without restriction, the import or transit through their territory of semi-processed hides and skins (limed hides, pickled pelts, and semi-processed leather - e.g. wet blue and crust leather), provided that these products have been submitted to the usual chemical and mechanical processes in use in the tanning industry.

Article 2.1.1.31.

When importing from FMD infected countries or zones, Veterinary Administrations should require:

for straw and forage

the presentation of an international veterinary certificate attesting that these commodities:

1)    are free of grossly identifiable contamination with material of animal origin;

2)    have been subjected to one of the following treatments, which, in the case of material sent in bales, has been shown to penetrate to the centre of the bale:

a)     either to the action of steam in a closed chamber such that the centre of the bales has reached a minimum temperature of 800C for at least 10 minutes,

b)    or to the action of formalin fumes (formaldehyde gas) produced by its commercial solution at 35-40% in a chamber kept closed for at least 8 hours and at a minimum temperature of 190C;

OR

3)    have been kept in bond for at least 3 months (under study) before being released for export.

Article 2.1.1.32.

When importing from FMD free countries or zones (where vaccination either is or is not practised), Veterinary Administrations should require:

for skins and trophies derived from wild animals susceptible to FMD

the presentation of an international veterinary certificate attesting that these products are derived from animals that have been kept in such a country or zone since birth, or which have been imported from a country or zone free of FMD (where vaccination either is or is not practised).

Article 2.1.1.33.

When importing from FMD infected countries or zones, Veterinary Administrations should require:

for skins and trophies derived from wild animals susceptible to FMD

the presentation of an international veterinary certificate attesting that these products have been processed to ensure the destruction of the FMD virus in conformity with the procedures referred to in Article 3.6.2.7.

 

[Note: International veterinary certificates for animal products coming from infected countries or zones may not be required if the products are transported in an approved manner to premises controlled and approved by the Veterinary Administration of the importing country for processing to ensure the destruction of the FMD virus in conformity with the procedures referred to in Articles 3.6.2.2., 3.6.2.3. and 3.6.2.4.]